TB-0708 — Shrinkage Characteristics of FORCE 10,000® Concrete Technical Bulletin

/ concrete / mix design


FORCE 10,000® concrete is typically used in applications where cracking may be a major concern. These include environments that are highly corrosive, chemically saturated, or very abrasive and where less permeable, more durable concrete is required. For these applications concrete needs to be designed and constructed to produce the least amount of cracking.

A series of tests was conducted by GCP Applied Technologies to examine the shrinkage characteristics of FORCE 10,000® concrete as it relates to aggregates, plain concrete and length of curing. The evaluations included several mix designs with silica fume dosage rates ranging from 0 to 10.8% by weight of cement. The concrete was sampled, prepared, cured and tested in accordance with ASTM C157, “Length Change of Hydraulic Cement Concrete.”

Test Series 1: The Effect of Aggregate Type on Shrinkage of FORCE 10,000® Concrete

Coarse Aggregate Type River Gravel Crushed Limestone
Coarse aggregate 1090 kg 1837 lbs 1051 kg 1771 lbs
Type II cement 332 kg 560 lbs 332 kg 560 lbs
Class F fly ash 59 kg 100 lbs 59 kg 100 lbs
FORCE 10,000® 42.4 kg 71.5 lbs 42.4 kg 71.5 lbs
HRWR 1174 mL/100 kg 18 oz/100 lbs 1174 mL/100 kg 18 oz/100 lbs
W/C + P ratio 0.35 0.35    
Slump 102 mm 4 in. 102 mm 4 in.
Air content, % 2.0 2.0
% Length change,
shrinkage, drying age
(after 7 days wet cure)
River Gravel Crushed Limestone
7 days 0.040 0.025    
28 days 0.078 0.038    
56 days 0.080 0.035    
90 days 0.075 0.036    

Note: Values do not represent all limestone and gravel aggregates.

Test Series 2: The Effect of FORCE 10,000® on Shrinkage at Equal Paste Content

Mix Description with FORCE 10,000® without FORCE 10,000®
Type II cement 332 kg 560 lbs 392 kg 600 lbs
Class F fly ash 59 kg 100 lbs 59 kg 100 lbs
FORCE 10,000® 42.4 kg 71.5 lbs 0 kg 0 lbs
HRWR 1174 mL/100 kg 18 oz/100 lbs 1174 mL/100 kg 18 oz/100 lbs
W/C + P ratio 0.35 0.34    
Slump 127 mm 5 in. 127 mm 5 in.
Air content, % 3.0 3.0    
% Length change,
shrinkage, drying age
(after 7 days wet cure)
with FORCE 10,000® without FORCE 10,000®
7 days 0.040 0.038    
28 days 0.078 0.075    
56 days 0.080 0.079    
90 days 0.075 0.076    

Test Series 3: The Effect of Curing on Shrinkage of FORCE 10,000® Concrete

Mix Description Midwest Gravel Northeast Gravel Midwest Limestone
W/C + P ratio 0.37 0.37 0.37
FORCE 10,000® 27.2 kg (46 lbs) 27.2 kg (46 lbs) 27.2 kg (46 lbs)
HRWR 652 mL/100 kg (10 oz/100 lbs) 652 mL/100 kg (10 oz/100 lbs) 652 mL/100 kg (10 oz/100 lbs)
Slump 165 mm (6.5 in.) 165 mm (6.5 in.) 165 mm (6.5 in.)
Air content, % 6% 6% 6%
% Length change (shrinkage) wet cure time, days
3 days 0.075 0.084 0.051
7 days 0.061 0.068 0.045
28 days 0.040 0.048 0.038


  1. The type of aggregate used in the mix will influence the amount of shrinkage.
  2. FORCE 10,000® has little effect on shrinkage when compared to concrete made without silica fume with equal paste content. ACI 234 indicates that the drying shrinkage of silica fume concrete is generally comparable to that of control concrete regardless of the water/cementitious ratio.

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We hope the information here will be helpful. It is based on data and knowledge considered to be true and accurate and is offered for consideration, investigation and verification by the user, but we do not warrant the results to be obtained. Please read all statements, recommendations and suggestions in conjunction with our conditions of sale, which apply to all goods supplied by us. No statement, recommendation, or suggestion is intended for any use that would infringe any patent, copyright, or other third party right.

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GCP Applied Technologies Inc., 2325 Lakeview Parkway, Suite 400, Alpharetta, GA 30009, USA
GCP Canada, Inc., 294 Clements Road, West, Ajax, Ontario, Canada L1S 3C6
This document is only current as of the last updated date stated below and is valid only for use in the United States. It is important that you always refer to the currently available information at the URL below to provide the most current product information at the time of use. Additional literature such as Contractor Manuals, Technical Bulletins, Detail Drawings and detailing recommendations and other relevant documents are also available on www.gcpat.com. Information found on other websites must not be relied upon, as they may not be up-to-date or applicable to the conditions in your location and we do not accept any responsibility for their content. If there are any conflicts or if you need more information, please contact GCP Customer Service.

Last Updated: 2023-06-28